In this article, the author reviews the diagnostic, pathogenetic, and therapeutic issues of systemic lupus erythematosus, with an emphasis on neurologic and neuropsychiatric lupus. The most recent guidelines for diagnosis and management are presented.
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Even though the term lupus was first used by Rogerius in the 13th century Blotzer , the systemic nature of the disease was established much later by Osler in Smith and Cyr A number of laboratory findings have revolutionized the understanding and diagnosis of the disease. The false-positive test for syphilis was first described in lupus by Hauck and Reinhart in Hargraves and colleagues reported the lupus erythematosus cell in , and Friou developed the fluorescent antinuclear antibody test in Hargraves et al ; Friou These discoveries established lupus as an autoimmune disease.
Since then, defects in immune complex clearance, B-cell tolerance, and T-cell function have been demonstrated Sullivan The discovery of various autoantibodies and the recognition that the antiphospholipid syndrome Hughson et al can coexist with systemic lupus erythematosus have been important milestones in understanding the disease process.
Other landmark observations have included the recognition of drug-induced lupus in Alarcon-Segovia and the establishment of a mouse animal model in The content you are trying to view is available only to logged in, current MedLink Neurology subscribers.
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Unless got a reason to visit people will not visit here. Some graves going back to early s. Hello Geoff, Thank you for visiting Malew recently.
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The church is unusual, detailing within it's architecture key elements of the social history of the Isle of Man as well as some almost unique ecclesiastical details. At the time of writing, the church is nearing the end of a period of repair and restoration which has seen the building have a new floor fitted to create level access along with a partial re-ordering of some areas to make the space more appropriate for the current generation whilst seeking to highlight some of the unique features of the space.
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Profile Log in. Log in to get trip updates and message other travellers. Worth popping in - St. Lupus, Kirk Malew. Church Bends , Castletown. Review Highlights. Reviewed 3 weeks ago.
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