The type of poetry to which both seem drawn, with its emphasis on phenomenological description and its terse economical style, serves to underline further this rejection of metaphysics in favor of an acceptance of the limitations of knowledge and of the apparent truth that man is a finite being in a plurally-constituted world and that what he knows is merely what is around him, and that that is all he can know. As Heidegger — frequently reminds us, poiesis , for the Greeks, meant a bringing forth, a pro-duction to presence, and covered not only that which is brought forth by the artist and craftsman but also by nature.
Hegel writes:. In this respect, as in many others, Romanticism has had a lasting effect.
As Giorgio Agamben writes:. This move reduces artistic engagements with the external world to being merely occasions where the determinate might be dissolved in a gesture toward the infinite. Such an approach to the world i.
But how can art approach things—if mere things are all we have in the post-Romantic world—in this way? A further, though related question, one that we have already begun to touch upon, is in what way does this approach dispel the epistemological problem of reflection that provided the underlying motivation of Romanticism? Being, that is, understood as a way of happening. Heidegger characterizes this forgetting as a loss of truth, understood as aletheia , or disclosure—only to be replaced by an understanding of truth based on presence—that is, the correspondence model of adaequatio intellectus et rei.
It is precisely such an outlook that allows a skilled skeptic like Descartes to conclude that without being able to think something in its full presence—as it is in itself—we have only an imperfect knowledge of it which leaves it open to doubt. This, in turn, leads to the formulation of the subject—that which, in order to maintain coherence, cannot be doubted—and the instantiation of the reflective model of consciousness. Of course, this distortion of being and forgetting of aletheia closely correspond to the suppression of the disclosive, drawing-forth character of poiesis that, I have argued, took place with the development of Romanticism.
It should now be clear that this was simply the inevitable aligning of poiesis with the metaphysics of presence. But what part does the post-Romantic revival of poiesis play in relation to this turn away from traditional metaphysics? The world is not the mere collection of the countable or uncountable, familiar and unfamiliar things that are just there. But neither is it a merely imagined framework added by our representation to the sum of such given things.
The world worlds , and is more fully in being than the tangible and perceptible realm in which we believe ourselves to be at home. World is never an object that stands before us and can be seen.
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World is the ever-nonobjective to which we are subject…. In contrast to this, but fundamentally connected to it, the earth is the stubborn, inexhaustible materiality of the work—it is that which resists disclosure and in so doing is brought forth as such, unconcealed as a concealing:. It shows itself only when it remains undisclosed and unexplained. Earth thus shatters every attempt to penetrate it. The earth is the impenetrable that is brought out as such into the clearing of the work; it is that of the artwork which is inexhaustible.
The work of art works by setting forth materiality in a certain unsubsumability, thereby making evident the resistance that the thingly element of the thing must offer if it is to emerge in its own aspect, disclosed in its coming to presence. Thus, for Heidegger—and, I am suggesting, possibly for post-Romanticism too—the work of art is a setting forth of materiality in its self-concealing unsubsumability: the earth is brought forth from the oblivion of the everyday into the open space of the work, not to be subsumed by another form but to disclose its impenetrability. Heidegger makes this point thus:.
The self-seclusion of earth […] is not a uniform, inflexible staying under cover, but unfolds itself in an inexhaustible variety of simple modes and shapes. To be sure, the sculptor uses stone just as the mason uses it, in his own way. But he does not use it up. That happens in a certain way only where the work miscarries.
To be sure, the painter also uses pigment, but in such a way that colour is not used up but rather only now comes to shine forth.
To be sure, the poet also uses the word—not, however, like ordinary speakers and writers who have to use them up, but rather in such a way that the word only now becomes and remains truly a word. Of course, at the same time, the more the earthly aspect of the work resists any single interpretation, the more open the work becomes. That is to say, the more the self-closing earthly characteristic of the work asserts itself, the more the world of the work is exercised in striving to open the work altogether the paradox being that if it were to succeed the work would cease to work and so would be finally closed and altogether without a world.
As self-opening it cannot endure anything closed. So the two parts of the work strive against one another forming the work-being of the work: the world moves to open the work up whilst the earth strives to close it. The more the world strives, opening up various relations and perspectives, the more open the work appears and, yet, the more it actually resists opening, resists any final interpretation or understanding; thus, it can be said, the more the earth is set forth, the more the world worlds, and vice versa. Heidegger places considerable emphasis on this mutual intensification and interdependence:.
In the struggle, each opponent carries the other beyond itself. Thus the striving becomes ever more intense as striving, and more authentically what it is.
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The more the struggle overdoes itself on its own part, the more inflexibly do the opponents let themselves go into the intimacy of simple belonging to one another. The earth cannot dispense with the Open of the world if it itself is to appear as earth in the liberated surge of its self-seclusion. This agonistic performance of concealing and revealing that constitutes the work-being of the work is, Heidegger argues, the happening of aletheia or truth.
Art projects the opening in which beings show themselves in their coming to presence. Art, in other words, is the clearing in which disclosure— aletheia —happens. What would post-Romantic poetry look like?
To try to answer this question we now turn to the Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa. It is to these two poets that we shall now turn to try to understand further what post-Romanticism might be. This divided world is represented to him by the two sides of the street where he lives and which he observes from the window of his room. The poem begins:.
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The protagonist allows his sense of failure and restless dissatisfaction to unfold:. But I think of being so many things! Mas penso tanta coisa! Thus, the external, objective world from which he feels utterly separate nevertheless oppresses him with a force both as powerful and as reflectively ungraspable as that of his inner world:. His fascination with the—to him—impenetrable world of the other side of the street, which is essentially a fascination with the limitations of reflection, prevents him from valuing the poetry he has written expressive of his unreflective awareness of existence:.
It is at this point that the owner of the tobacco shop enters the poem. If the other side of the street represents the outer, objective world to which the protagonist is denied access, and the tobacco shop is the symbolic centre of that world, then the owner of the shop is the lord of that world. Em , realizou a viagem planejada, mas em sentido inverso. Em , recebeu merecido reconhecimento, advindo - pasmem! Em , ficou por algum tempo no rio Negro. Em companhia de E.
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Na mata, ela quase sempre levava apenas sua espingarda Flaubert! Era ela mesma quem sempre preparava as aves que abatia, mesmo nos primeiros tempos, quando um preparador [taxidermista] a acompanhava. Deve haver mais de Delas, cito apenas o Chloronerpes paraensis , o Pteroglossus reichenowi e o Grallaria martinsi Seu passatempo era a Oologia. Tal artigo, na verdade, deveria ter sido publicado como segunda parte de sua "Brasilianische Oologie" [Oologia Brasileira]. Talvez sua sepultura esteja sinalizada com uma cruz simples de madeira [ Figura 2 ]. Bastava-lhe um lugar onde pudesse armar sua rede.
Levava consigo o que fosse precisar. Tal foi o principal motivo de ela ter-se mantido no ostracismo. Ouvia atentamente cada som. Mostrava enorme habilidade para achar ninhos e ovos. Chegou a deixar pronto um colibri em apenas 15 minutos. Ela nunca esquecia seu devocional. Assim era o seu dia a dia. O tanto que eu viajei no Brasil, ela viajou pelo mundo e se tornou uma famosa especialista em coleta. Viagens da Dra. Freiburg im Breisgau. Ueber die Gattung Joufia G. Monatsberichte XIV, S. XIV, S.
Ein neuer Zwergspecht. XV, S. Ornithologisches von Tapajoz und Tocantins; Journ. Goeldi, vol. VI, S. Berichtigung; Orn. Neue Vogelarten aus Amazonien; Orn. Monatsberichte XX, S. XII, S. Do you think it is raining? Bateram a porta.