Brazil is one of the most economically unequal countries in the world, with the top 10 percent of its population earning 50 percent of the national income and about 8.
The Brazilian government has made several attempts in the 20th century to improve the nation's problem of urban poverty. One way was by the eradication of the favelas and favela dwellers that occurred during the s while Brazil was under military governance. These favela eradication programs forcibly removed over , residents and placed them in public housing projects or back to the rural areas that many emigrated from.
The government sought to upgrade the favelas and integrate them into the inner city with the newly urbanized upper-middle class. As these "upgraded favelas" became more stable, they began to attract members of the lower-middle class pushing the former favela dwellers onto the streets or outside of the urban center and into the suburbs further away from opportunity and economic advancement. For example: in Rio de Janeiro, the vast majority of the homeless population is black, and part of that can be attributed to favela gentrification and displacement of those in extreme poverty.
The cocaine trade has affected Brazil and in turn its favelas, which tend to be ruled by drug lords. Regular shoot-outs between traffickers and police and other criminals, as well as assorted illegal activities, lead to murder rates in excess of 40 per , inhabitants in the city of Rio and much higher rates in some Rio favelas. They do this by maintaining order in the favela and giving and receiving reciprocity and respect, thus creating an environment in which critical segments of the local population feel safe despite continuing high levels of violence.
Drug use is highly concentrated in these areas run by local gangs in each highly populated favela. Drug sales run rampant at night when many favelas host their own baile , or dance party, where many different social classes can be found. In , there were approximately favelas in Rio de Janeiro; today there are twice as many.
In , only 7 percent of Rio de Janeiro's population lived in favelas; in the present day this number has grown to 19 percent or about one in five people living in a favela.
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According to national census data, from to , the overall growth rate of Rio de Janeiro dropped by 8 percent, but the favela population increased by 41 percent. After , the city's growth rate leveled off at 7 percent, but the favela population increased by 24 percent.
A number of religious traditions exist in the favelas. Historically, Catholicism was the most prominent religion of the area, but over the past few decades there has been a shift toward Evangelicalism , including Pentecostalism. Popular types of music in favelas include funk , hip-hop , and Samba. Popular funk artists include MC Naldo and Buchecha  Bailes funk are forms of dance parties that play this type of funk music and were popularized in favelas. Media representations of favelas also serve to spread knowledge of favelas, contributing to the growing interest in favelas as tourist locations.
Fascination with favela life can be seen in many paintings, photography, and reproductions of favela dwellings. The book was written to make policy makers aware of the extent of the involvement of children in drug trafficking.
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His book is the result of an empirical study based on fieldwork on children and adolescents and their participation in drug trafficking factions in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro. In dealing with the issue of armed violence involving children, the author investigates the causes, the data about this reality and the relationship of these children with drug trafficking in the favelas of Rio.
Since the mids, a new form of tourism has emerged in globalizing cities of several so-called developing countries or emerging nations. Visits to the most disadvantaged parts of the city are essential features of this form of tourism. It is mainly composed of guided tours, marketed and operated by professional companies, through these disadvantaged areas. This new form of tourism has often been referred to as slum tourism which can also be seen in areas of South Africa and India.
This new touristic phenomena has developed into a major segment of touristic exploration. The tours are viewed as a spectacular alternative to mainstream Rio de Janeiro attractions, such as Sugarloaf Mountain and Christ the Redeemer. They offer a brief portrayal of Rio's hillside communities that are far more than the habitats often misrepresented by drug lords and criminals. Directed by trained guides, tourists are driven up the favela in vans, and then explore the community's hillside by foot. Guides walk their groups down main streets and point out local hot spots.
Most tours stop by a community center or school, which are often funded in part by the tour's profits.
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Tourists are given the opportunity to interact with local members of the community, leaders, and area officials, adding to their impressions of favela life. Depending on the tour, some companies will allow pictures to be taken in predetermined areas, while others prohibit picture-taking completely. The Brazilian federal government views favela tourism with high regard. Beginning in Santa Marta, a favela of approximately 5, Cariocas, federal aid was administered in order to invigorate the tourism industry.
English signs indicating the location of attractions are posted throughout the community, samba schools are open, and viewing stations have been constructed so tourists can take advantage of Rio de Janeiro's vista. Federal and state officials are carrying out marketing strategies and constructing information booths for visitors. Residents have also been trained to serve as tour guides, following the lead of pre-existing favela tour programs.
The media representation of favelas has increased peoples' interest in favelas as tourist locations. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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For other uses, see Favela disambiguation. Shanty town or slum in Brazil. Main article: Pacifying Police Unit.
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Brazil portal. Encyclopedia of the City. Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 24 November Glimpses of another world: The favela as a tourist attraction. February Sources on the history of favelas in Brazil. O Dia in Portuguese. Retrieved 11 December Tribuna do Norte. O Globo in Portuguese. Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 23 December Latin American Perspectives Business Source Complete. Poverty tourism: theoretical reflections and empirical findings regarding an extraordinary form of tourism.
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